I think that maximums are 2 fc (4 fc for chiv if mage is less than 70 I think) / 6 FCR but my question is how is it calculated. Seems easy but there is one pitfall. For FC: If you use an item with FC -1 then does it add up all your FC, reduce it to the maximum and then take the FC -1 penalty or does it add up all FC, including the FC -1, and give you the net result. I've cast protection with 4 FC and have felt a significant casting speed penalty casting mage spells. What would my FC be in this case? Are there any exceptions where it is calculated differently? For FCR: I ran into the problems with the FC but not with the FCR yet but since I was asking the FC question, I figured that I'd ask if there are any cases where FCR is reduced and how it is calculated. There are none I can think of offhand but would like to know. Thanks.